Der Lehrer und Pädagoge – Grand Prix Emanuel Feuermann

Fordernd und ambitioniert  – die andere Seite des Emanuel Feuermann (Teil 1)

Emanuel Feuermann

Emanuel Feuermann wurde von den bekanntesten Musikern seiner Zeit als genialer und begnadeter Musiker und einer der besten Cellisten seiner Generation gefeiert. Seine Plattenaufnahmen und seine Konzert-Auftritte waren ebenso herausragend und die Zeitzeugen bezeichneten seine Konzerte als unvergessene Erlebnisse. Die Lobreden stammen von vielen Musiker-Kollegen seiner Zeit sowie Künstlern, die ihn auch als Lehrer erlebt haben. Ein Blick auf seine Überzeugungen und Ideen als Pädagoge und Lehrer stellen ohne Frage eine weitere Facette seiner Musiker-Persönlichkeit dar. In diesem Blogbeitrag werden einige Kern-Aussagen und Gedanken aus der einzigen erhaltenen Schrift, die Feuermann eigenhändig verfasst hatte, vorgestellt ( die Originalsschrift ist betitelt „Notes on Interpretation“).

Hieraus wollen wir einige treffende Passagen auswählen und wiedergeben, um Appetit zu machen, sein Spiel und seine Sichtweise hinsichtlich der Aspekte Talent und Persönlichkeit, Praxis und Üben, Musikalität und Technik weiter zu vertiefen, um so den jungen Nachwuchs-Cellisten einiges von der Einzigartigkeit seiner musikalischen Befähigung und seiner Talente als Lehrer spüren zu lassen – gewissermaßen ein Wissenstransfer über die Zeitläufe hinweg.

Die folgenden Gedankengänge und Reflektionen des großen Meisters sind gewiss an Klarheit und Deutlichkeit für Lernende kaum zu übertreffen. Diese Statements stellen aus unserer Sicht einmalige Zeugnisse seiner Rolle als Lehrer und Pädagoge dar. Hier also einige ausgewählte Passagen in der Originalsprache Englisch, um jedwede Verzerrung oder Inkorrektheit zu vermeiden. Die englische Sprache, in der er diese Gedanken zu Papier brachte, war von enormer Überzeugungskraft und Präzision im Ausdruck – eine weitere Fähigkeit dieses Multi-Talents.

Feuermanns Ideal-Vorstellung von einem Lehrer

“My ideal is for the teacher to watch the student during practice. Where would the comparison to painting lie? How and where would it be possible to carry over the art of teaching painting to music? The teacher could work with his students in the same building; in this way students could always have their teachers as “ears” and the teacher could go from room to room, correcting pupils while they are practicing. This would be Utopia! Not only because of the question of room. Candidly, teachers are not always inclined to lend their ears to their pupils for any longer than thirty, forty, or sixty minutes. A significant question remains, whose answer is hardly in the affirmative: how intensively or meaningfully do the teachers themselves practice?”

Das A und O des Cellospiels für junge, ambitionierte Cellisten

Let us take one example of inadequacy in a cellist for an explanation; from the very beginning to the very end, scales play a big role in a cellist’s life. For the beginner the scale is an aid in getting acquainted with notes, intervals, positions, and intonation. After this, scales still remain a daily practice. It is my custom to ask for scales when someone plays an audition for me.

Cellists who play for me are usually considered accomplished, who, as for instance you did, come for some advice, for the “last touch.” But not once have I heard a scale played from which I could have assumed that the player knew even in the slightest the fundamentals of the scale. What do I hear, uncertain intonation, uneven fingers, awkward string crossings and position changes. And what do I like to hear? A scale made up of clean tones, the fingers going down in such a way that the unequal strength of the fingers is hidden; a scale in which audible string crossings do not exist and in which the position is changed so quickly that the difference between a finger placed on the string and a change of position can hardly be felt; thus a row of notes of uniform strength, perfect in intonation and without disrupting, extraneous noises, these are the fundamentals of a scale, the ideal!

How does one approach this idea? Just by playing a scale over and over again, believing everything is done if the scale is played fast and approximately in tune? No. By having such an ideal, an imaginary, perfect, bodyless scale in the mind and in the ear, every cellist can overcome the difficulties of the instrument to a surprising extent.

Die Mühsal des Übens und worauf es sonst noch ankommt

One of the most interesting topics in music and the teaching of music is practice. Here, as in everything, lack of forethought and interest commonly dominate. The pupil receives his assignment, he returns for the lesson, the teacher points out false notes here and there, changes a few fingerings, perhaps suggests more freedom of playing or scolds because the pupil has not given enough time to his lesson, and with this it is over. Even an untalented pupil will with this customary kind of instruction make progress over the years and reach a certain degree of facility.

Counter to this way of teaching is one in which one single method dominates. One teacher constantly emphasizes “technique;” the pupil must practice long hours; above all he must practice difficult pieces, must concentrate on intonation and speed. The mechanism which is so necessary for the beauty and elegance of music is not practiced, but it must be played quickly and clearly. Its melodic qualities and its phrasing are hardly touched; and the real precision work on the instrument, which is as enduring and gratifying as the inside of a watch or as the work of a smithy, does not exist.

During the lessons the student will be constantly reminded of the seriousness, the majesty, the nobility of the artistic profession. Technique or mechanism will be regarded with contempt, with the result that after years of such instruction, the young person, who believes himself an artist, an exceptional person, is sent out into the world, often conceited and arrogant, without being capable of conveying even a vague notion, whether true or false, of art.

Talent und Künstlertum, Amateure und Profis

It is the mechanism alone that is necessary for the juggler, sharpshooter, or maker of fine instruments; on the other hand a “musical” person because of his musicality, his knowledge about the music, or his love for music is still not necessarily an artist.

There are many amateurs who have more sensitivity to music than some artists. There are non-professional people who are experts in the field of music. I knew a French general who had the most amazing knowledge of Bach.

If there is no fitting definition for talent, there is also none for an artist. I believe that an artist is a person who has an inexplicable longing for music, who has a knowledge of the music, combined with mastery of the mechanics of his instrument.

I daresay that it is not any more difficult to play well than to play poorly. Talent plays an important part in how well one plays, but talent alone, unless combined with intelligence, effort, and persistence, is not enough. How often do we meet people, especially in the arts, of whom we can speak as wasted talents. The real talents find their way anyhow. And by these very exceptions, one can say with good conscience that the better balanced one can keep talent and general intelligence, as well as specific intelligence, the better one will play.

Die gesamten Ausführungen kann man unter dieser Web-Adresse abrufen..:
Quelle: http://www.cello.org/heaven/feuer/contents.htm

Bisher sind folgende Blogeiträge bei Kronbergzweinull zum Grand Prix Emanuel Feuermann erschienen:

Zeit zum Erinnern

Bernard Greenhouse remembers

Michael Heinz

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